On the Misery of Mankind

Homily on the Misery of Mankind

A Sermon of the Misery of all Mankind and of his Condemnation to Death Everlasting, by his own Sin.

The Holy Ghost, in writing the holy Scripture, is in nothing more diligent than to pull down mans vain glory and pride, which of all vices is most universally grafted in all mankind, even from the first infection of our first father Adam. And therefore we read in many places of Scripture, many notable les sons against this old rooted vice, to teach us the most commendable virtue of humility, how to know ourselves, and to remember what we be of ourselves.

In the book of Genesis (Gen 3), Almighty God giveth us all a title and name in our great grandfather Adam, which ought to warn us all to consider what we be, whereof we be, from whence we came, and whither we shall, saying thus, In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat thy bread, till thou be turned again into the ground, for out of it wast thou taken, in as much as thou art dust, into dust shalt thou be turned again. Here (as it were in a glass) we may learn to know ourselves to be but ground, earth, and ashes, and that to earth and ashes we shall return.

Also, the holy Patriarch Abraham did well remember this name and title, dust, earth, and ashes, appointed and assigned by God to all mankind: and therefore he calleth himself by that name, when he maketh his earnest prayer for Sodom and Gomorrah. And we read that Judith (Judit 4 & 9), Esther, Job (Job 13), Jeremiah (Jer 6 & 15), with other holy men and women in the Old Testament, did use sackcloth, and to cast dust and ashes upon their heads, when they bewailed their sinful living. They called and cried to God, for help and mercy, with such a ceremony of sackcloth, dust, and ashes, that there by they might declare to the whole world, what an humble and lowly estimation they had of themselves, and how well they remembered their name and title aforesaid, their vile corrupt frail nature, dust, earth, and ashes. The book of Wisdom (Wisdom 7) also willing to pull down our proud stomachs, mouth us diligently to remember our mortal and earthly generation, which we have all of him that was first made: and that all men, as well kings as subjects, come into this world, and go out of the same in like sort: that is, as of ourselves full miserable, as we may daily see. And Almighty God commanded his Prophet Isaiah to make a Proclamation, and cry to the whole world: and Isaiah (Isa 40) asking, what shall I cry? The Lord answered, Cry, that all flesh is grass, and that all the glory thereof, is but as the flower of the field, when the grass is withered, the flower falleth away, when the wind of the Lord bloweth upon it. The people surely is grass, the which drieth up, and the flower fadeth away. And the holy man Job (Job 14), having in himself great experience of the miserable and sinful estate of man, doth open the same to the world in these words; Man (sayth he) that is borne of a woman, living but a short time, is full of manifold miseries, he springeth up like a flower, and fadeth again, vanisheth away as it were a shadow, and never continueth in one state. And dost thou judge it meet (O Lord) to open thine eyes upon such a one, and to bring him to judgement with thee? Who can make him clean, that is conceived of an unclean seed, and all men of their evilness, and natural proneness, be so universally given to sin, that (as the Scripture saith) God repented that ever he made man. And by sin his indignation was so much provoked against the world, that he drowned all the world with Noah’s flood (except Noah himself, and his little household.) (Gen 9) It is not without great cause, that the Scripture of God doth so many times call all men here in this world by this word, earth, O thou earth, earth, earth, saith Jeremiah (Jer 22), hear the word of the Lord. This our right name, calling, and title, earth, earth, earth, pronounced by the Prophet, showeth what we be indeed, by whatsoever other stile, title, or dignity, men do call us. Thus he plainly named us, who knoweth best, both what we be, and what we ought of right to be called. And thus he setteth us forth, speaking by his faithful Apostle Saint Paul, All men, Jews and Gentiles, are under sin, there is none righteous, no not one: there is none that under standeth, there is none that seeketh after God, they are all gone out of the way, they are all unprofitable, there is none that doth good, no not one: their throat is an open sepulchre, with their tongues they have used craft and deceit, the poison of serpents is under their lips, their mouth is full of curling and bitterness, their feet are swift to shed blood, destruction and wretchednesse are in their wayes, and the way of peace have they not known: there is no fear of God before their eyes. And in another place, Saint Paul writeth thus, God hath wrapped all nations in unbelief, that he might have mercy on all. (Rom 11)

The Scripture shutteth up all under sin (Gal 3), that the promise by the faith of Jesus Christ, should be given unto them that believe. Saint Paul in many places painteth us out in our colours, calling us the children of the wrath of God (Eph 2), when we be borne: saying also that we cannot think a good thought of ourselves, much less can we say well, or do well of ourselves. And the Wise man saith in the book of Proverbs (Prov 24), The just man falleth seven times a day.

The most tried and approved man Job, feared all his works. Saint John the Baptist being sanctified in his mothers womb, and praised before he was borne (Lk 1), being called an Angel, and great before the Lord, filled even from his birth with the holy Ghost, the preparer of the way for our Saviour Christ, and commended of our Saviour Christ to be more then a Prophet, and the greatest that ever was borne of a woman: yet he plainly granteth, that he had need to be washed (Matt 3) of Christ, he worthily extolleth and glorifieth his Lord and master Christ, and humbleth himself as unworthy to unbuckle his shoes, and giveth all honour and glory to God. So doth Saint Paul both oft and evidently confess himself, that he was of himself, ever giving (as a most faithful servant) all praise to his master and Saviour. So doth blessed Saint John the Evangelist, in the name of himself, and of all other holy men (be they never so just) make this open confession (1 Jn 1): If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us: If we acknowledge our sins, God is faithful and just to forgive our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness: If we say we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us. Wherefore, the wise man in the book called Ecclesiastes (Ecc 7), maketh this true and general confession, There is not one just man upon the earth that doth good, and sinneth not. And David is ashamed of his sin, but not to confess his sin (Ps 51). How oft, how earnestly, and lamentably doth he desire God’s great mercy for his great offences, and that God should not enter into judgement with him? And again, how well weigheth this holy man his sins (Ps 113), when he confesseth that they be so many in number, and so hid, and hard to understand, that it is in a manner impossible to know, utter, or number them? Wherefore, he having a true, earnest, and deep contemplation and consideration of his sins, and yet not coming to the bottom of them, he maketh supplication to God (Ps 19), to forgive him his privy, secret, hid sins: to the knowledge of which we cannot attain unto. He weigheth rightly his sins from the original root and spring head, perceiving inclinations, provocations, stirrings, stingings, buds, branches, dregs, infections, tastes, feelings, and scents of them to continue in him still. Wherefore he saith, Mark, and behold, I was conceived in sins (Ps 51): He saith not sin, but in the plural number, sins, for as much as out of one (as a fountain) springeth all the rest.

Our Saviour Christ saith, There is none good, but God (Lk 18): and that we can do nothing that is good without him (Jn 15), nor no man can come to the father but by him (Lk 17). He commandeth us also to say, that we be un profitable servants, when we have done all that we can do. He preferreth the penitent Publican, before the proud, holy, and glorious Pharisee (Lk 18). He calleth himself a Physician (Matt 9), but not to them that be whole, but to them that be sick, and have need of his salve for their sore. He teacheth us in our prayers, to acknowledge ourselves sinners, and to ask righteousness and deliverance from all evils, at our heavenly Fathers hand. He declareth that the sins of our own hearts, do defile our own selves (Mtt 12). He teacheth that an evil word or thought deserveth condemnation, affirming that we shall give account for every idle word (Matt 15). He saith, He came not to save, but the sheep that were utterly lost, and cast away. Therefore few of the proud, just, learned, wise, perfect, and holy Pharisees, were saved by him, because they justified themselves by their counterfeit holiness before men. Wherefore (good people) let us beware of such hypocrisy, vain glory, and justifying of ourselves.

The second part of the Sermon of the misery of man

Forasmuch as the true knowledge of ourselves is very necessary, to come to the right knowledge of God, ye have heard in the last reading, how humbly all godly men always have thought of themselves, and so to think and judge of themselves, are taught of God their Creator, by his holy word. For of ourselves we be crab-trees, that can bring forth no apples. We be of ourselves of such earth, as can bring forth but weds, nettles, brambles, briers, cockle, and darnel. Our fruits be declared in the fifth chapter to the Galatians. We have neither faith, charity, hope, patience, chastity, nor any thing else that good is, but of God, and therefore these virtues be called there, the fruits of the holy ghost, and not the fruits of man. Let us therefore acknowledge ourselves before God (as we be indeed) miserable and wretched sinners. And let us earnestly repent, and humble ourselves heartily, and cry to God for mercy. Let us all confess with mouth and heart, that we be full of imperfections: Let us know our own works, of what imperfection they be, and then we shall not stand foolishly and arrogantly in our own conceits, nor challenge any part of justification by our merits or works. For truly there be imperfections in our best works: we do not love God so much as we are bound to do, with all our heart, mind, and power: we do not fear God so much as we ought to do: we do not pray to God, but with great and many imperfections: we give, forgive, believe, live, and hope imperfectly: we speak, think, and do imperfectly: we fight against the devil, the world, and the flesh imperfectly: Let us therefore not be ashamed to confess plainly our state of imperfection: yea, let us not be ashamed to confess imperfection, even in all our best works. Let none of us be ashamed to say with holy Saint Peter, I am a sinful man (Lk 5) . Let us say with the holy Prophet David (Ps 106), We have sinned with our fathers, we have done amiss and dealt wickedly, Let us all make open confession with the prodigal son to our father, and say with him, We have sinned against heaven, and before thee (O Father) we are not worthy to be called thy son (Lk 15). Let us all say with holy Baruch (Bar 2), O Lord our God, to us is worthily ascribed shame and confusion, and to thee righteousness: We have sinned, we have done wickedly, we have behaved ourselves ungodly in all thy righteousness. Let us all say with the holy Prophet Daniel (Dan 9), O Lord, righteousness belongeth to thee, unto us belongeth confusion. We have sinned, we have been naughty, we have offended, we have fled from thee, we have gone back from all thy precepts and judgements. So we learn of all good men in holy Scriptures, to humble ourselves, and to exalt, extol, praise, magnify, and glorify God.

Thus we have heard how evil we be of ourselves, how of ourselves, and by ourselves, we have no goodness, help nor salvation, but contrary wise, sin, damnation, and death everlasting: which if we deeply weigh and consider, we shall the better understand the great mercy of God, and how our salvation cometh only by Christ. For in ourselves (as of ourselves) we find nothing, whereby we may be delivered from this miserable captivity (2 Cor 3), into the which we were cast, through the envy of the devil, by breaking of God’s commandment, in our first parent Adam. We are all become unclean (Ps 50), but we all are not able to cleanse ourselves, nor to make one another of us clean. We are by nature the children of God’s wrath, but we are not able to make ourselves the children and inheritors of God’s glory (Eph 2). We are sheep that run astray (1 Pt 2), but we can not of our own power come again to the sheepfold, so great is our imperfection and weakness. In ourselves therefore may we not glory, which (of ourselves) are nothing but sinful: neither may we rejoice in any works that we do, which all be so imperfect and impure, that they are not able to stand before the righteous judgement seat of God, as the holy Prophet David saith (Ps 143), Enter not into judgement with thy servant (O Lord:) for no man that liveth shall be found righteous in thy sight. To God therefore must we flee, or else shall we never find peace, rest and quietness of conscience in our hearts. For he is the Father of mercies, (2. Cor. 1). and God of all consolation (2 Cor 1). He is the Lord, with whom is plenteous redemption (Ps 130): He is the God which of his own mercy saveth us, and setteth out his charity and exceeding love towards us, in that of his own voluntary goodness, when we were perished, he saved us, and provided an everlasting Kingdome for us. And all these heavenly treasures are given us, not for our own deserts, merits, or good deeds, (which of ourselves we have none) but of his mere mercy freely. And for whose sake? Truly for Jesus Christ’s sake, that pure and undefiled lamb of God. He is that dearly beloved Son, for whose sake God is fully pacified, satisfied, and set at one with man. He is the Lamb of God (Jn 1) which taketh away the sins of the world, of whom only it may be truly spoken, that he did all things well, and in his mouth was found no craft nor subtlety (1 Pt 2). None but he alone may say, The prince of the world came, and in me he hath nothing. And he alone may also say, Which of you shall reprove me of any fault? (Jn 8) He is the high and everlasting Priest, which hath offered himself once for all upon the altar of the cross, (Heb 7) and with that one oblation hath made perfect for evermore them that are sanctified (1 Jn 2). He is the alone mediator between God and man, which paid our ransom to God with his own blood, and with that hath he cleansed us all from sin. He is the Physician which healeth all our diseases (Matt 1). He is that Saviour which saveth his people from all their sins: To be short, he is that flowing and most plenteous fountain, of whose fulness all we have received. For in him alone are all the treasures of the wisdom and knowledge of God hidden. And in him, and by him, have we from God the Father all good things, pertaining either to the body or to the soul. O how much are we bound to this our heavenly Father for his great mercies, which he hath so plenteously declared unto us in Christ Jesu our Lord and Saviour! What thanks worthy and sufficient can we give to him? Let us all with one accord burst out with joyful voice, ever praising and magnifying this LORD of mercy, for his tender kindness showed unto us in his dearly beloved Son Jesus Christ our Lord.

Hitherto have we heard what we are of ourselves: very sinful, wretched, and damnable. Again, we have heard how that of ourselves, and by ourselves, we are not able either to think a good thought, or work a good deed, so that we can find in ourselves no hope of salvation, but rather whatsoever maketh unto our destruction. Again, we have heard the tender kindness and great mercy of God the Father towards us, and how beneficial he is to us for Christ’s sake, without our merits or deserts, even of his own mere mercy and tender goodness. Now, how these exceeding great mercies of God, set abroad in Christ Jesu for us, be obtained, and how we be delivered from the captivity of sin, death, and hell, it shall more at large (with God’s help) be declared in the next Sermon. In the mean season, yea, and at all times let us learn to know ourselves, our frailty and weakness, without any craking or boasting of our own good deeds and merits. Let us also acknowledge the exceeding mercy of God towards us, and confess, that as of ourselves cometh all evil and damnation: so likewise of him commeth all goodness and salvation, as God himself saith by the Prophet Hosea (Hos 13), O Israel, thy destruction cometh of thyself, but in ure that in the time of his visitation, he will lift us up unto the kingdom of his dearly beloved son Christ Jesu our Lord: To whom, with the Father, and the holy Ghost, be all honour and glory for ever. Amen.

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December 2022

Welcome to the news service of the Church of England Cintinuing.

Forasmuch as man, being not borne to ease and rest, but to labour and travail, is by corruption of nature through sin, so far degenerated and grown out of kind, that he taketh idleness to be no evil at all, but rather a commendable thing, seemly for those that be wealthy, and therefore is greedily embraced of most part of men, as agreeable to their sensual affection, and all labour and travail is diligently avoided, as a thing painful and repugnant to the pleasure of the flesh: It is necessary to be declared unto you, that by the ordinance of God, which he hath set in the nature of man, every one ought, in his lawful vocation and calling, to give himself to labour: and that idleness, being repugnant to the same ordinance, is a grievous sin, and also, for the great inconveniences and mischiefs which spring thereof, an intolerable evil: to the intent that when ye understand the same, ye may diligently flee from it, and on the other part earnestly apply yourselves, every man in his vocation, to honest labour and business, which as it is enjoined unto man by God’s appointment, so it wanteth not his manifold blessings and sundry benefits.

In what points the true ornaments of the Church or Temple of God do consist and stand, hath been declared in the two last Homilies, entreating of the right use of the Temple or house of God, and of the due reverence that all true Christian people are bound to give unto the same. The sum whereof is, that the Church or house of God, is a place appointed by the holy Scriptures, where the lively word of God ought to be read, taught, and heard, the Lords holy name called upon by public prayer, hearty thanks given to his Majesty for his infinite and unspeakable benefits bestowed upon us, his holy Sacraments duly and reverently ministered, and that therefore all that be godly indeed, ought both with diligence at times appointed, to repair together to the said Church, and there with all reverence to use and behave themselves before the Lord. And that the said Church thus godly used by the servants of the Lord, in the Lords true service, for the effectual presence of God’s grace, wherewith he doeth by his holy word and promises, endue his people there present and assembled, to the attainment, as well of commodities worldly, necessary for us, as also of all heavenly gifts, and life everlasting, is called by the word of God (as it is indeed) the Temple of the Lord, and the house of God, and that therefore the due reverence thereof, is stirred up in the hearts of the godly, by the consideration of these true ornaments of the said house of God, and not by any outward ceremonies or costly and glorious decking of the said house or Temple of the Lord, contrary to the which most manifest doctrine of the Scriptures, and contrary to the usage of the Primitive Church, which was most pure and incorrupt, and contrary to the sentences and judgements of the most ancient, learned and godly Doctors of the Church (as hereafter shall appear) the corruption of these latter days, hath brought into the Church infinite multitudes of images, and the same, with other parts of the Temple also, have decked with gold and silver, painted with colours, set them with stone and pearl, clothed them with silks and precious vestures, fancying untruly that to be the chief decking and adorning of the Temple or house of God, and that all people should be the more moved to the due reverence of the same, if all corners thereof were glorious, and glistering with gold and precious stones. Whereas indeed they by the said images, and such glorious decking of the Temple, have no thing at all profited such as were wise and of understanding: but have thereby greatly hurt the simple and unwise, occasioning them thereby to commit most horrible idolatry. And the covetous persons, by the same occasion, seeming to worship, and peradventure worshipping indeed, not only the images, but also the matter of them, gold and silver, as that vice is of all others in the Scriptures peculiarly called idolatry or worshipping of images. (Eph 5, Col 3) Against the which foul abuses and great enormities shall be alleged unto you: First, the authority of God’s holy word, as well out of the old Testament, as of the new. And secondly, the testimonies of the holy and ancient learned Fathers and Doctors, out of their own works and ancient histories Ecclesiastical, both that you may at once know their judgements, and withal understand what manner of ornaments were in the Temples in the Primitive Church in those times, which were most pure and sincere. Thirdly, the reasons and arguments made for the defence of images or idols, and the outrageous decking of Temples and Churches, with gold, silver, pearl, and precious stone, shall be confuted, and so this whole matter concluded. But lest any should take occasion by the way, of doubting by words or names, it is thought good here to note first of all, that although in common speech we use to call the likeness or similitude of men or other things images, and not idols: yet the Scriptures use the said two words (idols and images) indifferently for one thing always. They be words of divers tongues and sounds, but one in sense and signification in the Scriptures. The one is taken of the Greek word Ei¶dwlon; an Idol, and the other of the Latin word Imago, and Image, and so both used as English terms in the translating of Scriptures indifferently, according as the Septuagint have in their translation in Greek Ei¶dwla, and St. Jerome in his translation of the same places in Latin hath Simulachra, in English, Images. And in the new Testament, that which St. John calleth Ei¶dwlon (1 Jn 5), St. Ierome likewise translateth Simulachrum, as in all other like places of Scripture usually he doeth so translate. And Tertullian , a most ancient Doctor, and well learned in both the tongues, Greek and Latin, interpreting this place of St. John , Beware of Idols, that is to say (saith Tertullian ) of the images themselves: the Latin words which he useth, be Effigies and Imago, to say, an Image (Lib. de corona militis). And therefore it skilleth not, whether in this process wee use the one term or the other, or both together, seeing they both (though not in common English speech, yet in Scripture) signify one thing. And though some to blind men’s eyes, have heretofore craftily gone about to make them to be taken for words of divers signification in matters of Religion, and have therefore usually named the likeness or similitude of a thing set up amongst the Heathen in their Temples or other places to be worshipped, an Idol. But the like similitude with us, set up in the Church, the place of worshipping, they call an Image, as though these two words (Idol and Image) in Scripture, did differ in propriety and sense, which as is afore said) differ only in sound and language, and in meaning be in deed all one, specially in the Scriptures and matters of Religion. And our Images also have been, and be, and if they be publicly suffered in Churches and Temples, ever will be also worshipped, and so Idolatry committed to them, as in the last part of this Homily shall at large be declared and proved. Wherefore our Images in Tem ples and Churches, be in deed none other but Idols, as unto the which Idolatry hath been, is, and ever will be committed.

Almighty GOD, to the intent his most holy Name should be had in honour, and evermore be magnified of the people, commandeth that no man should take his Name vainly in his mouth, threatening punishment unto him that irreverently abuseth it by swearing, forswearing, andblasphemy. To the intent therefore that this commandment may be the better known and kept, it shall bee declared unto you, both how it is lawful for Christian people to swear, and also what peril and danger it is vainly to swear, or to be forsworn.

Unto a Christian man, there can be nothing either more necessary or profitable, than the knowledge of Holy Scripture; forasmuch as in it is contained God’s true word, setting forth his glory, and also man’s duty. And there is no truth nor doctrine, necessary for our justification and everlasting salvation, but that is, or may be, drawn out of that fountain and well of truth. Therefore, as many as be desirous to enter into the right and perfect way unto God, must apply their minds to know Holy Scripture; without the which, they can neither sufficiently known God and his will, neither their office and duty. And as drink is pleasant to them that be dry, and meat to them that be hungry; so is the reading, hearing, searching, and studying of Holy Scripture, to them that be desirous to know God, or themselves, and to do his will. And their stomachs only do loathe and abhor the heavenly knowledge and food of God’s word, that be so drowned in worldly vanities, that they neither saviour God, nor any godliness: for that is the cause why they desire such vanities, rather than the true knowledge of God. As they that are sick of an ague, whatsoever they eat and drink, though it be never so pleasant, yet it is as bitter to them as wormwood; not for the bitterness of the meat, but for the corrupt and bitter humour that is in their own tongue and mouth; even is the sweetness of God’s word bitter, not of itself, but only unto them that have their minds corrupted with long custom of sin and love of this world.

Of all things that be good to be taught unto Christian people, there is nothing more necessary to be spoken of, and daily called upon, then charity: as well for that all manner of works of righteousness be contained in it, as also that the decay thereof is the ruin or fall of the world, the banishment of virtue, and the cause of all vice. And for so much as almost every man, maketh and frameth to himself charity after his own appetite, and how detestable soever his life be, both unto God and man, yet he persuadeth himself still that he hath charity: therefore you shall hear now a true and plain description or setting forth of charity, not of men’s imagination, but of the very words and example of our Saviour Jesus Christ. In which description or setting forth, every man (as it were in a glass) may consider himself, and see plainly without error, whether he be in the true charity, or not.

Among all the creatures that God made in the beginning of the world most excellent and wonderful in their kind, there was none (as the Scripture beareth witness) to be compared almost in any point unto man, who as well in body and soul exceeded all other no less, then the Sun in brightness and light exceedeth every small and little star in the firmament. He was made according to the image and similitude of God, he was endued with all kind of heavenly gifts, he had no spot of uncleanness in him, he was found and perfect in all parts, both outwardly and inwardly, his reason was incorrupt, his understanding was pure and good, his will was obedient and godly, he was made altogether like unto God, in righteousness, in holiness, in wisdom, in truth, to be short in all kind of perfection.

In the last Sermon was declared unto you, what the lively and true faith of a Christian man is, that it causeth not a man to be idle, but to be occupied in bringing forth good works, as occasion serveth.

Of our going from God, the wise man saith, that pride was the first beginning: for by it mans heart was turned from God his maker. For pride (saith he) is the fountain of all sin: he that hath it, shall be full of cursings, and at the end it shall overthrow him. (Ecclus 10) And as by pride and sin we go from God, so shall God and all goodness with him go from us. And the Prophet Hosea doth plainly affirm (Hos 5), that they which go a way still from God by vicious living, and yet would go about to pacify him otherwise by sacrifice, and entertain him thereby, they labour in vain. For, notwithstanding all their sacrifice, yet he goeth still away from them. For so much (saith the Prophet) as they do not apply their minds to return to God, although they go about with whole flocks and herds to seek the Lord, yet they shall not find him: for he is gone away from them.

Because all men be sinners and offenders against God, and breakers of his law and commandments, therefore can no man by his own acts, works, and deeds (seem they never so good) be justified, and made righteous before God: but every man of necessity is constrained to seek for another righteousness or justification, to be received at God’s own hands, that is to say, the forgiveness of his sins and trespasses, in such things as he hath offended. And this justification or righteousness, which we so receive of God’s mercy and Christ’s merits. embraced by faith, is taken, accepted and allowed of God, for our perfect and full justification.