Against Swearing and Perjury
Almighty GOD, to the intent his most holy Name should be had in honour, and evermore be magnified of the people, commandeth that no man should take his Name vainly in his mouth, threatening punishment unto him that irreverently abuseth it by swearing, forswearing, andblasphemy. To the intent therefore that this commandment may be the better known and kept, it shall bee declared unto you, both how it is lawful for Christian people to swear, and also what peril and danger it is vainly to swear, or to be forsworn.
How and in what causes it is lawful to swear.
First, when Judges require others of the people for declaration or opening of the truth, or for execution of justice, this manner of swearing is lawful. Also when men make faithful promises with calling to witness of the Name of GOD, to keep covenants, honest promises, statutes, laws and good customs, as Christian Princes do in their conclusions of peace, for conservation of common wealth, and private persons promise their fidelity in Matrimony, or one to another in honesty and true friendship: and all men when they do swear to keep common laws, and local statutes, and good customs, for due order to be had and continued among men, when Subjects do swear to be true and faithful to their King and Sovereign Lord, and when Judges, Magistrates, and Officers swear truly to execute their Offices, and when a man would affirm the truth to the setting forth of Gods glory (for the salvation of the people) in open preaching of the Gospel, or in giving of good counsel privately for their souls health: all these manner of swearing, for causes necessary and honest, be lawful. But when men do swear of custom, in reasoning, buying and selling, or other daily communications (as many be common and great swearers) such kind of swearing is ungodly, unlawful, and forbidden by the commandment of GOD. For such swearing is nothing else, but taking of GODS holy name in vain. And here is to be noted, that lawful swearing is not forbidden, but commanded by Almighty GOD. For we have examples of Christ, and godly men, in holy Scripture, that did swear themselves, and required others of others likewise. And GOD’S Commandment is, Thou shalt dread thy Lord GOD, and shalt swear by his Name. (Deut 6) And Almighty GOD by his Prophet David saith, “All men shall be praised that swear by him.” (Psalm 63)
Thus did our Saviour Christ swear divers times, saying, “Verily, verily”. (John 3) And St. Paul sweareth thus, “I call GOD to witness”. (2 Cor 1) And Abraham (waxing old) required an oath of his servant, that he should procure a wife for his son Isaac, which should come of his own kindred: and the servant did swear that he would perform his master’s will. (Gen 24) Abraham also being required, did swear unto Abimelech the king of Geraris, that he should not hurt him, nor his posterity, and likewise did Abimelech swear unto Abraham. (Gen 21) And David did swear to be and continue a faithful friend to Jonathan, and Jonathan did swear to become a faithful friend unto David.
Also God once commanded, that if a thing were laid to pledge to any man, or left with him to keep, if the same thing were stolen, or lost, that the keeper thereof should be sworn before Judges, that he did not convey it away, nor used any deceit in causing the same to be conveyed away, by his consent or knowledge. And Saint Paul saith, that in all matters of controversy between two persons, whereas one saith, Yea, and the other, Nay, so as no due proof can be had of the truth, the end of every such controversy must be an oath ministered by a Judge. (Heb 6) And moreover GOD by the Prophet Jeremiah saith, “Thou shalt swear, The Lord liveth, in truth, in judgement, in righteousness.” (Jer 4) So that whosoever sweareth when he is required of a Judge, let him be sure in his conscience that his oath have three conditions, and he shall never need to be afraid of perjury.
What condition an oath ought to have.
First, he that sweareth, may swear truly, that is, he must (setting a part all favour and affection to the parties) have the truth only before his eyes, and for love thereof, say and speak that which he knoweth to be truth, and no further. The second is, he that taketh an oath, must do it with judgement, not rashly and unadvisedly, but soberly, considering what an oath is. The third is, he that Sweareth, must swear in righteousness: that is, for the very zeal and love which he beareth to the defence of innocency, to the maintenance of the truth, and of the righteousness of the matter or cause: all profit, disprofit, all love and favour unto the person for friendship or kindred laid apart. Thus an oath (if it have with it these three conditions) is a part of GODS glory, which we are bound by his commandments to give unto him.
Why we be willed in scripture to swear by the Name of God.
For he willeth that we shall swear only by his name, not that he hath pleasure in oaths, but like as he commanded the Jews to offer sacrifices unto him, not for any delight that he had in them, but to keep the Jews from committing of idolatry: so he commanding us to swear by his holy name, doeth not teach us that he delighteth in swearing, but he thereby forbiddeth all men to give his glory to any creature in heaven, earth, or water. (Isa 42) Hitherto you see, that oaths lawful are commanded of GOD (Ps 15), used of Patriarchs and Prophets, of Christ himself, and of his Apostle Paul. Therefore Christian people must think lawful oaths, both godly and necessary.
Commodities had by lawful oaths made and observed.
For by lawful promise and covenants confirmed by oaths, Princes and their Countries are confirmed in common tranquillity & peace. By holy promises with calling the name of GOD to witness, we be made lively members of Christ, when wee profess his Religion receiving the Sacrament of Baptism. By like holy promise the Sacrament of Matrimony knitteth man and wife in perpetual love, that they desire not to be separated for any displeasure or adversity that shall after happen. By lawful oaths, which Kings, Princes, Judges, and Magistrates doe swear, common laws are kept inviolate, Justice is indifferently ministered, harmless persons, fatherless children, widows, and poor men, are defended from murderers, oppressors, and thieves, that they suffer no wrong, nor take any harm. By lawful oaths, mutual society, amity, and good order is kept continually in all commonalties, as Boroughs, Cities, Towns, and Villages. And by lawful oaths, malefactors are searched out, wrong doers are punished, and they which sustain wrong, are restored to their right. Therefore lawful swearing cannot be evil, which bringeth unto us so many godly, good, and necessary commodities.
Vain swearing is forbidden.
Wherefore when Christ so earnestly forbad swearing, it may not be understood, as though he did forbid all manner of oaths: but he forbiddeth all vain swearing and forswearing both by GOD, and by his creatures, as the common use of swearing in buying, selling, and in our daily communication, to the intent every Christian man’s word should be as well regarded in such matters, as if he should confirm his communication with an oath. For every Christian man’s word (saith St. Jerome) should be so true, that it should be regarded as an oath. And Chrysostom witnessing the same, saith, It is not convenient to swear: for what needeth us to swear, when it is not lawful for one of us to make a lie unto another?
An objectionPeradventure some will say, I am compelled to swear, for else men that do commune with me, or do buy and sell with me will not believe me.An answer.To this, answered St. Chrysostom, that he that thus saith, showeth himself to be an unjust and a deceitful person. For if he were a trusty man, and his deeds taken to agree with his words, he should not need to swear at all. For he that useth truth and plainness in his bargaining and communication, he shall have no need by such vain swearing, to bring himself in credence with his neighbours, nor his neighbours will not mistrust his sayings. And if his credence be so much lost indeed, that he thinketh no man will believe him without he swear, then he may well think his credence is clean gone. For truth it is (as Theophylactus writeth) that no man is less trusted, then he that useth much to swear. And Almighty GOD by the Wise man saith, That man which sweareth much shall be full of sinne, and the scourge of GOD shall not depart from his house. (Sirach 23.9-10)
Another objection.But here some men will say, for excusing of their many oaths in their daily talk: Why should I not swear, when I swear truly? To such men it may be said, that though they swear truly, yet in swearing often unadvisedly, for trifles, without necessity, and when they should not swear, they be not without fault, but doe take GODS most holy name in vain. Much more ungodly and unwise men are they, that abuse
An answer.GODS most holy name, not only in buying and selling of small things daily in all places, but also in eating, drinking, playing, communing and reasoning. As if none of these things might be done, except in doing of them, the most holy name of GOD bee commonly used and abused, vainly and irreverently talked of, sworn by, and forsworn, to the breaking of GODS commandment, and procurement of his indignation
The second part of the Sermon of Swearing.
You have been taught in the first part of this Sermon against swearing and perjury, what great danger it is to use the name of GOD in vain. And that all kind of swearing is not unlawful, neither against GODS commandment, and that there be three things required in a lawful oath. First, that it bee made for the maintenance of the truth. Secondly, that it bee made with judgement, not rashly and unadvisedly. Thirdly, for the zeal and love of Justice. Ye heard also what commodities commeth of lawful oaths, and what danger commeth of rash and unlawful oaths. Now as concerning the rest of the same matter, you shall understand, that as well they use the name of GOD in vain, that by an oath make unlawful promises of good and honest things, and perform them not: as they which doe promise evil and unlawful things, and doe perform the same. Of
Lawful oaths and promises would be better regarded.
Of such men that regard not their godly promises bound by an oath, but wittingly and wilfully breaketh them, we do read in holy Scripture two notable punishments. First, Joshua and the people of Israel made a league and faithful promise of perpetual amity and friendship with the Gibeonites: (Josh 9): not withstanding afterward in the days of wicked Saul, many of these Gibeonites were murdered, contrary to the said faithful promise made. Wherewith Almighty GOD was sore displeased that he sent an universal hunger upon the whole country, which continued by the space of three years. And GOD would not with draw his punishment, until the said offence was revenged by the death of seven sons, or next kinsmen of king Saul. And whereas Zedekiah king of Jerusalem, had promised fidelity to the king of Chaldea, afterward when Zedechiah contrary to his oath and allegiance, did rebel against King Nebuchadnezzar: this heathen king by GODS permission and sufferance, invading the land of Jewry, and besieging the city of Jerusalem, compelled the said king Zedechiah to flee, and in fleeing, took him prisoner, slew his sons before his face, and put out both his eyes: and binding him with chains, led him prisoner miserably into Babylon. (2 Kings 24-25)
Unlawful oaths and promises are not to be kept.
Thus doeth GOD show plainly how much he abhorreth breakers of honest promises bound by an oath made in his Name. And of them that make wicked promises by an oath, and will perform the same, we have example in the Scriptures, chiefly of Herod, of the wicked Jews, and of Jephtha. Herod promised by an oath unto the Damsel which danced before him, to give unto her whatsoever she would ask: when she was instructed before of her wicked mother to ask the head of Saint John Baptist, Herod as he took a wicked oath, so he more wickedly performed the same, and cruelly slew the most holy Prophet. (Mtt14) Likewise did the malicious Jews make an oath, cursing themselves if they did either eat or drink, until they had slain Saint Paul. (Acts 23) And Jephta when GOD had given to him victory of the children of Ammon, promised (of a foolish devotion) unto GOD, to offer for a sacrifice unto him, that person which of his own house should first meet with him after his return home. By force of which fond and unadvised oath, he did slay his own and only daughter, which came out of his house with mirth and joy to welcome him home. (Judges 11) Thus the promise which he made (most foolishly) to GOD, against GODS everlasting will, and the law of nature, most cruelly he performed, so committing against GOD a double offence. Therefore, whosoever maketh any promise, binding himself thereunto by an oath: let him foresee that the thing which he promiseth, be good, and honest, and not against the commandment of GOD, and that it be in his own power to perform it justly. And such good promises must all men keep evermore assuredly. But if a man at any time shall, either of ignorance, or of malice, promise and swear to do any thing which is either against the law of Almighty GOD, or not in his power to perform: let him take it for an unlawful and ungodly oath.
Now something to speak of perjury, to the intent you should know how great and grievous an offence against GOD this wilful perjury is, I will show you what it is to take an oath before a Judge upon a book.
An oath before a Judge.
First, when they laying their hands upon the Gospel book, do swear truly to enquire, and to make a true presentment of things wherewith they be charged, and not to let from saying the truth, and doing truly, for favour, love, dread, or malice of any person, as GOD may help them, and the holy contents of that book: They must consider, that in that book is contained GODS everlasting truth, his most holy and eternal word, whereby we have forgiveness of our sins and be made inheritors of heaven, to live for ever with GODS Angels and Saints, in joy and gladness. In the Gospel book is contained also GODS terrible threats to obstinate sinners, that will not amend their lives, nor believe the truth of GOD his holy word, and the everlasting pain prepared in hell for Idolaters, hypocrites, for false and vain swearers, for perjured men, for false witness bearers, for false condemners of innocent and guiltless men, and for them which for favour, hide the cries of evil doers, that they should not bee punished. So that whosoever wilfully forswear themselves upon Christ’s holy Evangel, they utterly forsake GODS mercy, goodness, and truth, the merits of our Saviour Christ’s nativity, life, passion, death, resurrection and ascension, they refuse the forgiveness of sins, promised to all penitent sinners, the joys of heaven, the company with Angels and Saints for ever. All which benefits and comforts are promised unto true Christian persons in the Gospel. And they, so being forsworn upon the Gospel, doe betake themselves to the Devils service, the master of all lies, falsehood, deceit, and perjury, provoking the great indignation and curse of GOD against them in this life, and the terrible wrath and judgement of our Saviour Christ, at the great day of the last judgement, when he shall justly judge both the quick and the dead, according to their works. For whosoever forsaketh the truth, for love of displeasure of any man, or for lucre and profit to himself, doeth for sake Christ, and with Iudas betray him.
Though perjury do escape here unspied and unpunished, it shall not do so for ever.
And although such perjured men’s falsehood bee now kept secret, yet it shall bee opened at the last day, when the secrets of all men’s hearts shall bee manifest to all the world. And then the truth shall appear, and accuse them: and their own conscience, with all the blessed company of Heaven, shall bear witness truly against them. And Christ the righteous Judge shall then justly condemn them to everlasting shame and death. This sin of perjury, Almighty GOD by the Prophet Malachi doeth threaten to punish sore, saying unto the Jews, I will come to you in judgement, and I will bee a swift witness and a sharp Judge upon sorcerers, adulterers, and perjured persons. (Mal 3) Which thing to the Prophet Zechariah GOD declareth in a vision, wherein the Prophet saw a book fleeing, which was twenty cubits long, and ten cubits broad, GOD saying then unto him, this is the curse that shall go forth upon the face of the earth, for falsehood, false swearing, and perjury. And this curse shall enter into the house of the false man and into the house of the perjured man, and it shall remain in the midst of his house, consume him, and the timber and stones of his house. Thus you see how much GOD doth hate perjury, and what punishment GOD hath prepared for false swearers, and perjured persons. (Zech 5)
Thus you have heard, how and in what causes it is lawful for a Christian man to swear: ye have heard what properties and conditions a lawful oath must have, and also how such lawful oaths are both godly and necessary to be observed: ye have heard, that it is not lawful to swear vainly, (that is) other ways then in such causes, and after such sort as is declared. And finally, ye have heard how damnable a thing it is, either to forswear ourselves, or to keep an unlawful, and an unadvised oath. Wherefore let us earnestly call for grace, that all vain swearing and perjury set apart, we may only use such oaths as be lawful and godly, and that we may truly without all fraud keep the same, according to GODS will and pleasure. To whom with the Son, and the holy Ghost, be all honour and glory. AMEN.
In what points the true ornaments of the Church or Temple of God do consist and stand, hath been declared in the two last Homilies, entreating of the right use of the Temple or house of God, and of the due reverence that all true Christian people are bound to give unto the same.
Unto a Christian man, there can be nothing either more necessary or profitable, than the knowledge of Holy Scripture; forasmuch as in it is contained God’s true word, setting forth his glory, and also man’s duty. And there is no truth nor doctrine, necessary for our justification and everlasting salvation, but that is, or may be, drawn out of that fountain and well of truth. Therefore, as many as be desirous to enter into the right and perfect way unto God, must apply their minds to know Holy Scripture; without the which, they can neither sufficiently known God and his will, neither their office and duty. And as drink is pleasant to them that be dry, and meat to them that be hungry; so is the reading, hearing, searching, and studying of Holy Scripture, to them that be desirous to know God, or themselves, and to do his will. And their stomachs only do loathe and abhor the heavenly knowledge and food of God’s word, that be so drowned in worldly vanities, that they neither saviour God, nor any godliness: for that is the cause why they desire such vanities, rather than the true knowledge of God. As they that are sick of an ague, whatsoever they eat and drink, though it be never so pleasant, yet it is as bitter to them as wormwood; not for the bitterness of the meat, but for the corrupt and bitter humour that is in their own tongue and mouth; even is the sweetness of God’s word bitter, not of itself, but only unto them that have their minds corrupted with long custom of sin and love of this world.
Of all things that be good to be taught unto Christian people, there is nothing more necessary to be spoken of, and daily called upon, then charity: as well for that all manner of works of righteousness be contained in it, as also that the decay thereof is the ruin or fall of the world, the banishment of virtue, and the cause of all vice. And for so much as almost every man, maketh and frameth to himself charity after his own appetite, and how detestable soever his life be, both unto God and man, yet he persuadeth himself still that he hath charity: therefore you shall hear now a true and plain description or setting forth of charity, not of men’s imagination, but of the very words and example of our Saviour Jesus Christ. In which description or setting forth, every man (as it were in a glass) may consider himself, and see plainly without error, whether he be in the true charity, or not.
Among all the creatures that God made in the beginning of the world most excellent and wonderful in their kind, there was none (as the Scripture beareth witness) to be compared almost in any point unto man, who as well in body and soul exceeded all other no less, then the Sun in brightness and light exceedeth every small and little star in the firmament. He was made according to the image and similitude of God, he was endued with all kind of heavenly gifts, he had no spot of uncleanness in him, he was found and perfect in all parts, both outwardly and inwardly, his reason was incorrupt, his understanding was pure and good, his will was obedient and godly, he was made altogether like unto God, in righteousness, in holiness, in wisdom, in truth, to be short in all kind of perfection.
In the last Sermon was declared unto you, what the lively and true faith of a Christian man is, that it causeth not a man to be idle, but to be occupied in bringing forth good works, as occasion serveth.
Of our going from God, the wise man saith, that pride was the first beginning: for by it mans heart was turned from God his maker. For pride (saith he) is the fountain of all sin: he that hath it, shall be full of cursings, and at the end it shall overthrow him. (Ecclus 10) And as by pride and sin we go from God, so shall God and all goodness with him go from us. And the Prophet Hosea doth plainly affirm (Hos 5), that they which go a way still from God by vicious living, and yet would go about to pacify him otherwise by sacrifice, and entertain him thereby, they labour in vain. For, notwithstanding all their sacrifice, yet he goeth still away from them. For so much (saith the Prophet) as they do not apply their minds to return to God, although they go about with whole flocks and herds to seek the Lord, yet they shall not find him: for he is gone away from them.
A Sermon of the Misery of all Mankind and of his Condemnation to Death Everlasting, by his own Sin.
Because all men be sinners and offenders against God, and breakers of his law and commandments, therefore can no man by his own acts, works, and deeds (seem they never so good) be justified, and made righteous before God: but every man of necessity is constrained to seek for another righteousness or justification, to be received at God’s own hands, that is to say, the forgiveness of his sins and trespasses, in such things as he hath offended. And this justification or righteousness, which we so receive of God’s mercy and Christ’s merits. embraced by faith, is taken, accepted and allowed of God, for our perfect and full justification.
The first coming unto God (good Christian people) is through Faith, whereby (as it is declared in the last Sermon) we be justified before God. And lest any man should be deceived, for lack of right understanding thereof, it is diligently to be noted, that Faith is taken in the Scripture two manner of ways.